linux rm -rf * 文件恢复记

abloz 2013-09-12
abloz 2013-09-12

周海汉/文 2013.9.12

手太快,肠子都毁清了。本来是删除一个文件 rm path/myfile.txt 结果不知为何加了个*,变成了 rm path/myfile.txt * 赶紧ls,发现所有代码都化为了乌有,还没提交,还没备份。删除时还不确认。一秒钟,世界就清净了。

带着侥幸的心情四处寻找,并无一处压缩包备份。有一些备份的地方也是很早期的工作。 欲哭无泪。

所以linux的rm删除时不先备份,真是要不得。难怪很多人rm时左看右看得过个半分钟才敢下手。有人建议直接将root下的rm改成mv的别名。 没办法,必须恢复。 机器在机房里,也不能断电拔硬盘或者重启。

首先,需立即将磁盘挂载为只读。

否则其他daemons 都来读写,神仙都恢复不了了。磁盘规划时一定要做功能分区。否则,误删了想恢复也很困难。比如linux安装时不分区整个装/下面,就很麻烦。 /data挂在/dev/sdb1上

[root@hs12 sh]# mount /dev/sdb1 on /data type ext4 (rw)

[root@hs12 hadoop]# mount -r -n -o remount /data mount: /data is busy 这需看看有哪些进程在用: [root@hs12 hadoop]# fuser -v -m /data 可以看到有很多java和hadoop进程在使用,杀之。 [root@hs12 hadoop]# mount -r -n -o remount /data 成功。 再到/data里touch文件,报错。

[root@hs12 data]# touch a touch: cannot touch `a’: Read-only file system

一下就放轻松了很多。因为改为只读挂载后,可以慢慢恢复,再也不用担心我的文件被覆盖。

使用debugfs

用debugfs查找被删文件的inode,再想法恢复。 [root@hs12 ~]# debugfs /dev/sdb1 debugfs 1.41.12 (17-May-2010)

debugfs: debugfs: lsdel Inode Owner Mode Size Blocks Time deleted 0 deleted inodes found.

神奇的debugfs 根本没找到有文件被删除的inodes,难道是我不会用?

失败!

使用grep恢复

grep 在磁盘二进制中查找文本,把前后的字符导出来,也许可以恢复部分。 [root@hs12 hadoop]# grep -a -B 100 -A 100 ‘active.sh’ /dev/sdb1 > results.txt 只有一些乱七八糟的二进制。 失败!

使用ext3grep

我的是ext4系统,根本不起作用。

只好寻找专业工具

用testdisk 6.14

使用介绍: http://www.cgsecurity.org/wiki/TestDisk%3a_undelete_file_for_ext2 下载: wget http://www.cgsecurity.org/testdisk-6.14.linux26-x86_64.tar.bz2 [root@hs12 hadoop]# cd testdisk-6.14 [root@hs12 testdisk-6.14]# ls Android.mk ChangeLog documentation.html fidentify_static INFO l photorec.8 README testdisk.8 testdisk_static VERSION AUTHORS COPYING fidentify.8 ico jni NEWS photorec_static readme.txt testdisk.log THANKS

[root@hs12 testdisk-6.14]# ./testdisk_static TestDisk 6.14, Data Recovery Utility, July 2013 Christophe GRENIER grenier@cgsecurity.org http://www.cgsecurity.org 1 P MS Data 2048 7811889151 7811887104 [primary] Directory /

drwxr-xr-x 500 500 4096 28-Aug-2013 13:41 . drwxr-xr-x 500 500 4096 28-Aug-2013 13:41 .. drwxrwxrwx 500 500 16384 18-Jul-2013 15:42 lost+found drwxrwxrwx 500 500 12288 12-Sep-2013 00:36 logs

drwxrwxrwx 500 500 4096 25-Jul-2013 16:54 test1 drwxrwxr-x 500 500 4096 12-Sep-2013 03:28 statis drwxrwxr-x 500 500 4096 12-Sep-2013 17:40 sh drwxrwxr-x 500 500 12288 3-Sep-2013 15:28 hadoop

Next Use Right to change directory, h to hide deleted files q to quit, : to select the current file, a to select all files C to copy the selected files, c to copy the current file

选到相应目录,enter,终于看到了删除的文件名,但是文件大小怎么都是0啊? TestDisk 6.14, Data Recovery Utility, July 2013 Christophe GRENIER grenier@cgsecurity.org http://www.cgsecurity.org 1 P MS Data 2048 7811889151 7811887104 [primary] Directory /sh

drwxrwxr-x 500 500 4096 12-Sep-2013 17:40 . drwxr-xr-x 500 500 4096 28-Aug-2013 13:41 ..

-rwxrwxr-x 500 500 0 12-Sep-2013 17:40 active.awk -rwxrwxr-x 500 500 0 12-Sep-2013 17:40 active.sh lrwxrwxrwx 500 500 13 2-Aug-2013 17:17 statis -rwxrwxr-x 500 500 0 12-Sep-2013 17:40 dateutil.sh -rwxrwxr-x 500 500 0 12-Sep-2013 17:40 hiveput.sh -rwxrwxr-x 500 500 0 12-Sep-2013 17:40 multidate.sh drwxrwxr-x 500 500 4096 3-Sep-2013 15:24 errlogs -rwxrwxr-x 500 500 0 12-Sep-2013 17:40 hiveactive.sh drwxrwxr-x 500 500 4096 12-Sep-2013 17:40 cps drwxrwxr-x 500 500 4096 30-Aug-2013 15:21 TempStatsStore -rwxrwxr-x 500 500 0 12-Sep-2013 17:40 bkactive.awk -rwxrwxr-x 500 500 0 12-Sep-2013 17:40 test.awk -rwxrwxr-x 500 500 0 12-Sep-2013 17:40 t.awk -rwxrwxr-x 500 500 0 12-Sep-2013 17:40 print -rw-rw-r– 500 500 0 12-Sep-2013 17:40 a -rw-rw-r– 500 500 0 12-Sep-2013 17:40 a.txt -rwxrwxr-x 500 500 0 12-Sep-2013 17:40 user.awk -rw-rw-r– 500 500 0 12-Sep-2013 17:40 luan -rwxrwxr-x 500 500 0 12-Sep-2013 17:40 cps.sh -rwxrwxr-x 500 500 0 12-Sep-2013 17:40 hivenewdev.sh -rw-rw-r– 500 500 0 12-Sep-2013 17:40 hive2mysql.sh -rw-rw-r– 500 500 0 12-Sep-2013 17:40 py lrwxrwxrwx 500 500 12 26-Aug-2013 09:34 userdata lrwxrwxrwx 500 500 10 26-Aug-2013 09:34 bidata -rwxrwxr-x 500 500 0 12-Sep-2013 17:40 bi.awk -rw-r–r– 500 500 0 12-Sep-2013 17:40 luandoutang_09_900037.csv -rw-rw-r– 500 500 0 12-Sep-2013 17:40 luan1 -rwxr-xr-x 500 500 0 12-Sep-2013 17:40 luan.awk -rwxr-xr-x 500 500 0 12-Sep-2013 17:40 luan.sh -rwxrwxr-x 500 500 0 12-Sep-2013 17:40 dvid_price.awk -rwxrwxr-x 500 500 0 12-Sep-2013 17:40 cid_price.awk lrwxrwxrwx 500 500 15 9-Sep-2013 13:33 adsdkdata -rw-rw-r– 500 500 0 12-Sep-2013 17:40 0908.txt -rw-rw-r– 500 500 0 12-Sep-2013 17:40 09081.txt -rw-rw-r– 500 500 0 12-Sep-2013 17:40 09.txt drwxrwxr-x 500 500 4096 9-Sep-2013 16:22 pid

TestDisk 6.14, Data Recovery Utility, July 2013

Please select a destination where /sh/active.awk will be copied. Keys: Arrow keys to select another directory C when the destination is correct Q to quit

用a 选择所有文件,C 备份,选一个备份到的目录,确认。

进去一看,文件名都恢复了,但文件内容都是空的。号称能恢复ext4的testdisk恢复失败。

又下了新版testdisk-7.0-WIP.linux26-x86_64.tar.bz2,一样的问题。

用extundelete-0.2.4恢复

官方网站:

http://extundelete.sourceforge.net/

下载:

wget http://downloads.sourceforge.net/project/extundelete/extundelete/0.2.4/extundelete-0.2.4.tar.bz2

extundelete依赖e2fsprogs [root@hs12 extundelete-0.2.4]# ./configure Configuring extundelete 0.2.4 configure: error: Can’t find ext2fs library

[root@hs12 extundelete-0.2.4]# yum install e2fsprogs-devel

[root@hs12 extundelete-0.2.4]# ./configure Configuring extundelete 0.2.4 Writing generated files to disk

[root@hs12 extundelete-0.2.4]# make & make install

[root@hs12 extundelete-0.2.4]# cd src [root@hs12 src]# ls block.c cli.cc extundelete-block.o extundelete-cli.o extundelete.h extundelete-priv.h jfs_compat.h Makefile Makefile.in block.h extundelete extundelete.cc extundelete-extundelete.o extundelete-insertionops.o insertionops.cc kernel-jbd.h Makefile.am

[root@hs12 src]# ./extundelete No action specified; implying –superblock. ./extundelete: Missing device name. Usage: ./extundelete [options] [–] device-file Options: –version, -[vV] Print version and exit successfully. –help, Print this help and exit successfully. –superblock Print contents of superblock in addition to the rest. If no action is specified then this option is implied. –journal Show content of journal. –after dtime Only process entries deleted on or after ‘dtime’. –before dtime Only process entries deleted before ‘dtime’. Actions: –inode ino Show info on inode ‘ino’. –block blk Show info on block ‘blk’. –restore-inode ino[,ino,…] Restore the file(s) with known inode number ‘ino’. The restored files are created in ./RECOVERED_FILES with their inode number as extension (ie, file.12345). –restore-file ‘path’ Will restore file ‘path’. ‘path’ is relative to root of the partition and does not start with a ‘/’ The restored file is created in the current directory as ‘RECOVERED_FILES/path’. –restore-files ‘path’ Will restore files which are listed in the file ‘path’. Each filename should be in the same format as an option to –restore-file, and there should be one per line. –restore-directory ‘path’ Will restore directory ‘path’. ‘path’ is relative to the root directory of the file system. The restored directory is created in the output directory as ‘path’. –restore-all Attempts to restore everything. -j journal Reads an external journal from the named file. -b blocknumber Uses the backup superblock at blocknumber when opening the file system. -B blocksize Uses blocksize as the block size when opening the file system. The number should be the number of bytes. –log 0 Make the program silent. –log filename Logs all messages to filename. –log D1=0,D2=filename Custom control of log messages with comma-separated Examples below: list of options. Dn must be one of info, warn, or –log info,error error. Omission of the ‘=name’ results in messages –log warn=0 with the specified level to be logged to the console. –log error=filename If the parameter is ‘=0’, logging for the specified level will be turned off. If the parameter is ‘=filename’, messages with that level will be written to filename. -o directory Save the recovered files to the named directory. The restored files are created in a directory named ‘RECOVERED_FILES/’ by default. ./extundelete: Error parsing command-line options.

[root@hs12 src]# ./extundelete /dev/sdb1 –restore-directory /data/sh NOTICE: Extended attributes are not restored. Loading filesystem metadata … 29800 groups loaded. Loading journal descriptors … 28266 descriptors loaded. Failed to restore file /data/sh Could not find correct inode number past inode 2. Try altering the filename to one of the entries listed below. File name | Inode number | Deleted status . 2 .. 2 lost+found 11 logs 195821569 dfs 14942209 mapred 165806081 bidata 221380609 userdata 3407873 trackdata 112459777 adsdkdata 135135233 test 227409921 a.tar.gz 12 t1 13 Deleted test1 227278849 statis 109051905 sh 24641537 hadoop 59506689 ./extundelete: Operation not permitted while restoring directory. ./extundelete: Operation not permitted when trying to examine filesystem [root@hs12 src]# ./extundelete /dev/sdb1 –restore-file /data/sh/active.awk NOTICE: Extended attributes are not restored. Loading filesystem metadata … 29800 groups loaded. Loading journal descriptors … 28266 descriptors loaded. Failed to restore file /data/sh/active.awk Could not find correct inode number past inode 2. Try altering the filename to one of the entries listed below. File name | Inode number | Deleted status . 2 .. 2 lost+found 11 logs 195821569 dfs 14942209 mapred 165806081 bidata 221380609 userdata 3407873 trackdata 112459777 adsdkdata 135135233 test 227409921 a.tar.gz 12 t1 13 Deleted test1 227278849 statis 109051905 sh 24641537 hadoop 59506689 ./extundelete: Operation not permitted while restoring file. ./extundelete: Operation not permitted when trying to examine filesystem

[root@hs12 RECOVERED_FILES]# ../extundelete /dev/sdb1 –restore-all NOTICE: Extended attributes are not restored. Loading filesystem metadata … 29800 groups loaded. Loading journal descriptors … 28266 descriptors loaded. [root@hs12 RECOVERED_FILES]# cd RECOVERED_FILES/ [root@hs12 RECOVERED_FILES]# cd sh [root@hs12 sh]# ls 09081.txt a bknewdev.awk charge.sh derby.log hive2mysql.sh luan.awk newdev.awk so.awk 0908.txt active.awk b.txt charge.txt dvid_price.awk hiveactive.sh luandoutang_09900037.csv newdev.sh t.awk 09.txt active.sh charge cid_price.awk emptycid hivenewdev.sh luan.sh pid.awk TempStatsStore 100001 adsdkdata charge_2013-09-09.txt cps err.txt hiveput.sh multidate.sh pid.sh test.awk 1dev.awk a.txt charge_20130909.txt cps_newdev.java getdvid.awk insdata.py newdev print user.awk 201309081.txt bi.awk charge2mysql.sh cps.sh getmysql.sh luan newdev1.awk py 201309091.txt bkactive.awk charge.awk dateutil.sh getnewdev_from_mysql.sh luan1 newdev2mysql.sh sendmail.sh [root@hs12 sh]# ls -l total 225360 -rw-r–r– 1 root root 29251633 Sep 12 19:46 09081.txt -rw-r–r– 1 root root 35249787 Sep 12 19:46 0908.txt -rw-r–r– 1 root root 64501420 Sep 12 19:46 09.txt -rw-r–r– 1 root root 2378 Sep 12 19:46 100001 -rw-r–r– 1 root root 840 Sep 12 19:46 1dev.awk -rw-r–r– 1 root root 33931129 Sep 12 19:46 201309081.txt -rw-r–r– 1 root root 27169653 Sep 12 19:46 201309091.txt -rw-r–r– 1 root root 1 Sep 12 19:46 a -rw-r–r– 1 root root 2227 Sep 12 19:46 active.awk -rw-r–r– 1 root root 999 Sep 12 19:46 active.sh -rw-r–r– 1 root root 19242484 Sep 12 19:46 adsdkdata -rw-r–r– 1 root root 5626 Sep 12 19:46 a.txt -rw-r–r– 1 root root 331 Sep 12 19:46 bi.awk -rw-r–r– 1 root root 1543 Sep 12 19:46 bkactive.awk -rw-r–r– 1 root root 931 Sep 12 19:46 bknewdev.awk -rw-r–r– 1 root root 11 Sep 12 19:46 b.txt -rw-r–r– 1 root root 230 Sep 12 19:46 charge -rw-r–r– 1 root root 20964603 Sep 12 19:46 charge_2013-09-09.txt -rw-r–r– 1 root root 229 Sep 12 19:46 charge_20130909_.txt -rw-r–r– 1 root root 1243 Sep 12 19:46 charge2mysql.sh -rw-r–r– 1 root root 428 Sep 12 19:46 charge.awk -rw-r–r– 1 root root 2822 Sep 12 19:46 charge.sh -rw-r–r– 1 root root 227 Sep 12 19:46 charge.txt -rw-r–r– 1 root root 1227 Sep 12 19:46 cid_price.awk drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Sep 12 19:46 cps -rw-r–r– 1 root root 12070 Sep 12 19:46 cps_newdev.java -rw-r–r– 1 root root 2764 Sep 12 19:46 cps.sh -rw-r–r– 1 root root 885 Sep 12 19:46 dateutil.sh -rw-r–r– 1 root root 992 Sep 12 19:46 derby.log -rw-r–r– 1 root root 658 Sep 12 19:46 dvid_price.awk -rw-r–r– 1 root root 54217 Sep 12 19:46 emptycid -rw-r–r– 1 root root 64279 Sep 12 19:46 err.txt -rw-r–r– 1 root root 379 Sep 12 19:46 getdvid.awk -rw-r–r– 1 root root 1217 Sep 12 19:46 getmysql.sh -rw-r–r– 1 root root 1552 Sep 12 19:46 getnewdev_from_mysql.sh -rw-r–r– 1 root root 532 Sep 12 19:46 hive2mysql.sh -rw-r–r– 1 root root 858 Sep 12 19:46 hiveactive.sh -rw-r–r– 1 root root 926 Sep 12 19:46 hivenewdev.sh -rw-r–r– 1 root root 683 Sep 12 19:46 hiveput.sh -rw-r–r– 1 root root 2227 Sep 12 19:46 insdata.py -rw-r–r– 1 root root 1045 Sep 12 19:46 luan -rw-r–r– 1 root root 813 Sep 12 19:46 luan1 -rw-r–r– 1 root root 336 Sep 12 19:46 luan.awk -rw-r–r– 1 root root 72909 Sep 12 19:46 luandoutang_09_900037.csv -rw-r–r– 1 root root 180 Sep 12 19:46 luan.sh -rw-r–r– 1 root root 420 Sep 12 19:46 multidate.sh drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Sep 12 19:46 newdev -rw-r–r– 1 root root 777 Sep 12 19:46 newdev1.awk -rw-r–r– 1 root root 1290 Sep 12 19:46 newdev2mysql.sh -rw-r–r– 1 root root 738 Sep 12 19:46 newdev.awk -rw-r–r– 1 root root 762 Sep 12 19:46 newdev.sh -rw-r–r– 1 root root 693 Sep 12 19:46 pid.awk -rw-r–r– 1 root root 518 Sep 12 19:46 pid.sh -rw-r–r– 1 root root 99 Sep 12 19:46 print -rw-r–r– 1 root root 30324 Sep 12 19:46 py -rw-r–r– 1 root root 160 Sep 12 19:46 sendmail.sh -rw-r–r– 1 root root 744 Sep 12 19:46 so.awk -rw-r–r– 1 root root 93 Sep 12 19:46 t.awk drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Sep 12 19:46 TempStatsStore -rw-r–r– 1 root root 311 Sep 12 19:46 test.awk -rw-r–r– 1 root root 385 Sep 12 19:46 user.awk [root@hs12 sh]# vi active.awk 查看,脚本都在。

整个恢复成功。 所以唯一成功的是extundelete ,并且不能指定文件和目录,而是全部恢复,才能成功。

一块石头落了地:) 经验提供给后来者,一定要备份,磁盘要功能分区。rm命令要 alias rm=”rm -i”.


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