http://abloz.com

date:2012.6.1

引言

hbase用java来操作是最方便,也效率最高的方式。但java并非轻量级,不方便在任何环境下调试。而且不同的开发人员熟悉的语言不一样,开发效率也不一样。hbase 通过thrift,还可以用python,ruby,cpp,perl等语言来操作。

thrift是facebook开发开源的类似google的protobuf的远程调用组件。但protobuf只有数据的序列化,且只支持二进制协议,没有远程调用部分。protobuf原生支持cpp,python,java,另外还有第三方实现的objectc,ruby等语言。而thrift是实现了序列化,传输,协议定义,远程调用等功能,跨语言能力更多。某些方面二者可以互相替代,但一些方面则各有适用范围。

 

启动thrift服务器

首先可以将hbase的path添加到.bashrc,这样便于在在任何目录执行hbase命令。

 

启动thrift server,默认侦听9090端口,如果有冲突,可以用-p参数修改默认端口。
 hbase thrift -p 19090 start
 [zhouhh@Hadoop48 hbase-0.94.0]$ hbase thrift -p 19090 start
 12/06/01 17:54:27 INFO util.VersionInfo: HBase 0.94.0
 12/06/01 17:54:27 INFO util.VersionInfo: Subversion https://svn.apache.org/repos/asf/hbase/branches/0.94 -r 1332822
 12/06/01 17:54:27 INFO util.VersionInfo: Compiled by jenkins on Tue May 1 21:43:54 UTC 2012
 Exception in thread "main" java.lang.AssertionError: Exactly one option out of [-hsha, -nonblocking, -threadpool, -threadedselector] has to be specified
 at org.apache.hadoop.hbase.thrift.ThriftServerRunner$ImplType.setServerImpl(ThriftServerRunner.java:201)
 at org.apache.hadoop.hbase.thrift.ThriftServer.processOptions(ThriftServer.java:169)
 at org.apache.hadoop.hbase.thrift.ThriftServer.doMain(ThriftServer.java:85)
 at org.apache.hadoop.hbase.thrift.ThriftServer.main(ThriftServer.java:192)
[zhouhh@Hadoop48 hbase-0.94.0]$ hbase thrift -p 19090 -nonblocking start
 ...
 12/06/01 17:25:38 INFO thrift.ThriftServerRunner: starting HBase TNonblockingServer server on 19090
 [zhouhh@Hadoop48 hbase-0.94.0]$ hbase thrift -p 19090 -hsha start
 12/06/01 17:55:27 DEBUG thrift.ThriftServerRunner: Using binary protocol
 12/06/01 17:55:27 DEBUG thrift.ThriftServerRunner: Using framed transport
 12/06/01 17:55:27 INFO thrift.ThriftServerRunner: starting HBase THsHaServer server on 19090

 

处理Hbase.thrift

编译hbase自带的Hbase.thrift,生成python语言的调用代码

[zhouhh@Hadoop48 hbase-0.94.0]$ cd src/main/resources/org/apache/hadoop/hbase/thrift/
 [zhouhh@Hadoop48 thrift]$ ls
 Hbase.thrift
 [zhouhh@Hadoop48 thrift]$ thrift --gen py Hbase.thrift
 [zhouhh@Hadoop48 thrift]$ ls
 gen-py Hbase.thrift
[zhouhh@Hadoop48 thrift]$ sudo mv gen-py /usr/local/lib/python2.7/site-packages/

 

查看现有hbase表

[zhouhh@Hadoop48 test]$ hbase shell
 hbase(main):003:0> list
 t1
 1 row(s) in 0.5320 seconds

 

写客户端测试代码

[zhouhh@Hadoop48 test]$ vi t.py
 #!/usr/bin/env python
 #coding:utf8
 #author:abloz.com
 #date:2012.6.1
 import sys
 #Hbase.thrift生成的py文件放在这里
 sys.path.append('/usr/local/lib/python2.7/site-packages/gen-py')
 from thrift import Thrift
 from thrift.transport import TSocket
 from thrift.transport import TTransport
 from thrift.protocol import TBinaryProtocol
from hbase import Hbase
 #如ColumnDescriptor 等在hbase.ttypes中定义
 from hbase.ttypes import *
# Make socket
 #此处可以修改地址和端口
 transport = TSocket.TSocket('localhost', 19090)
 # Buffering is critical. Raw sockets are very slow
 # 还可以用TFramedTransport,也是高效传输方式
 transport = TTransport.TBufferedTransport(transport)
 # Wrap in a protocol
 #传输协议和传输过程是分离的,可以支持多协议
 protocol = TBinaryProtocol.TBinaryProtocol(transport)
 #客户端代表一个用户
 client = Hbase.Client(protocol)
 #打开连接
 transport.open()
print client.getTableNames()

执行

[zhouhh@Hadoop48 test]$ python t.py
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 File "t.py", line 27, in <module>
 print client.getTableNames()
 File "/usr/local/lib/python2.7/site-packages/gen-py/hbase/Hbase.py", line 769, in getTableNames
 return self.recv_getTableNames()
 File "/usr/local/lib/python2.7/site-packages/gen-py/hbase/Hbase.py", line 779, in recv_getTableNames
 (fname, mtype, rseqid) = self._iprot.readMessageBegin()
 File "build/bdist.linux-x86_64/egg/thrift/protocol/TBinaryProtocol.py", line 126, in readMessageBegin
 File "build/bdist.linux-x86_64/egg/thrift/protocol/TBinaryProtocol.py", line 203, in readI32
 File "build/bdist.linux-x86_64/egg/thrift/transport/TTransport.py", line 58, in readAll
 File "build/bdist.linux-x86_64/egg/thrift/transport/TTransport.py", line 160, in read
 File "build/bdist.linux-x86_64/egg/thrift/transport/TSocket.py", line 94, in read
 socket.error: [Errno 104] Connection reset by peer
server 打印:
 12/06/01 17:55:40 ERROR server.THsHaServer: Read an invalid frame size of -2147418111. Are you using TFramedTransport on the client side?
 要想提高传输效率,必须使用TFramedTransport或TBufferedTransport.但对-hsha,-nonblocking两种服务器模式,必须使用TFramedTransport。将其改为线程方式试试。
 [zhouhh@Hadoop48 hbase-0.94.0]$ hbase thrift -p 19090 -threadpool start
 ...
 12/06/01 18:02:17 DEBUG thrift.ThriftServerRunner: Using binary protocol
 12/06/01 18:02:17 INFO thrift.ThriftServerRunner: starting TBoundedThreadPoolServer on /0.0.0.0:19090; min worker threads=16, max worker threads=1000, max queued requests=1000

[zhouhh@Hadoop48 test]$ python t.py
['t1']
打印正确

创建表:

 查看HBase.thrift中关于创建表的描述:
 /**
 * Create a table with the specified column families. The name
 * field for each ColumnDescriptor must be set and must end in a
 * colon (:). All other fields are optional and will get default
 * values if not explicitly specified.
 *
 * @throws IllegalArgument if an input parameter is invalid
 *
 * @throws AlreadyExists if the table name already exists
 */
 void createTable(
 /** name of table to create */
 1:Text tableName,
/** list of column family descriptors */
 2:list<ColumnDescriptor> columnFamilies
 ) throws (1:IOError io, 2:IllegalArgument ia, 3:AlreadyExists exist)
列描述符的描述:
 /**
 * An HColumnDescriptor contains information about a column family
 * such as the number of versions, compression settings, etc. It is
 * used as input when creating a table or adding a column.
 */
 struct ColumnDescriptor {
 1:Text name,
 2:i32 maxVersions = 3,
 3:string compression = "NONE",
 4:bool inMemory = 0,
 5:string bloomFilterType = "NONE",
 6:i32 bloomFilterVectorSize = 0,
 7:i32 bloomFilterNbHashes = 0,
 8:bool blockCacheEnabled = 0,
 9:i32 timeToLive = -1
 }

追加代码

#创建测试表,用户信息表。每个列名都必须跟":"
try:
    colusername = ColumnDescriptor( name = 'username:',maxVersions = 1 )
    colpass = ColumnDescriptor( name = 'pass:',maxVersions = 1 )
    colage = ColumnDescriptor( name = 'age:',maxVersions = 1 )
    colinfo = ColumnDescriptor( name = 'info:',maxVersions = 1 )

    client.createTable('tusers', [colusername,colpass,colage,colinfo])

    print client.getTableNames()

except AlreadyExists, tx:
    print "Thrift exception"
    print '%s' % (tx.message)
执行:
 [zhouhh@Hadoop48 test]$ python t.py
 ['t1']
 ['t1', 'tusers']
 [zhouhh@Hadoop48 test]$ python t.py
 ['t1', 'tusers']
 Thrift exception
 table name already in use

参考

http://yannramin.com/2008/07/19/using-facebook-thrift-with-python-and-hbase/

http://smallboby.iteye.com/blog/1526865